<markdown> # [XRM2008](http://xrm2008.web.psi.ch) ## 21. Juli 2008 ### 10:38 - Salome: Fluorescence microscopy * X-ray microscopy @ ESRF * technical development

  • different beamlines

* GUI for control of microscope > ROI can be drawn in, direct conversion of coordinates * multimodal nano-imaging set-up

  • prototype setup, operated with pink beam
  • multilevel-detectors

* fluorescence tomography

  • sinograms from fluorescence!
  • algorithmic solutions are preferred over mechanical solutions
  • different materials can be extracted
  • fluorescence signal and diffraction signal are obtained @ same time, crystalline phases can be reconstructed

(mostly shown an overview with lots of technical diagrams)

### 11:11 - Kaulich: TwinMic at Elettra * spectromicroscopy

  • spectroscopy of human cells
  • 80 * 80 \mu\meter\squared image width
  • simultaneously acquire signals from different elements!

(spectroscopy, rather technical)

### 11:36 - Holzner: Fluorescence & phase contrast microscopy * mass per area can be known, but phase contrast is needed to obtain full information of biological probes * difference of opposing detector halves (segmented detector is used) > already obtain information from probe

  • correlation of soft tissue with elemental content (with directional dependence)

* phase image increases resolution * obtain directly thickness map of sample

  • determine elemental concentration

(interesting talk about DPC nicely made with \latex, even with an embedded movie, applications look really promising > talk with sam about this presentation)

### 11:57 - Bergmann: Archimedes manuscript * XRF for document recovery of scientifically very valuable script * nothing (original) has survived of archimedes writings > recopying it on “new data formats” * all we know about archimedes comes from 3 documents (codex a, b and c) * geometrical discovery by physical thought-experiment * codex has been imaged after it has been bought by “donor” * archimedes writings have been overwritten by prayer-book, so recovery was “scientifically relevant” * archeology with highly technical methods (spectroscopy) * 10`6-10`7 px in 1-10 hours * imaging of soft tissue is the ultimate goal, fossils can be done now * [data](http://www.archimedespalimpsest.net) * [more info](http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org) * publication in physics world, 2007

### 14:01 - Otero: Dynamic STM * STM > atomic resolution of sample surface is easy, morphology can be also extracted * molecule movement observed (rotated molecules move, unrotated stay put) > diffusion coefficient depends on the orientation of the molecule regarding the surface * hybrid solar cells using dye molecules

  • “basically convert power out of vegetables” > hard to capture bio-molecules on surfaces
  • knowledge about molecule (achieved through STM) helps with design of it and makes available to cover surfaces with nearly everything you want to…

### 14:50 - Saito: SR-STM * optimization of SR-STM @ beamline, mechanical tips, etc.

### 15:21 - Ono: Nanosheets * oxide nanosheets, layered compound which is delaminated in single sheets (~1nm thick) * stacked nanosheets can be achieved > Tailoring the properties * tiny amount of sheet materials still gets us good spectra

— ## 22. Juli 2008 worked for akira

— ## 23. Juli 2008 ### 10:49 - Vogel: stretched proteins * protein structure > obtain information through fluoroscopy * confocal microscopy * protein unfolding occurs in cell culture * protein droplets > pull out fibers and deposit those on stretchable substrates * strained proteins can become physiologically relevant/significant

  • bacteria adhesion (E. colic)
  • bacterial adhesion is enhanced by shear flow > high flow gives high adhesion
  • resistency-control would become feasible
  • could be used as nanoglue, since bond gets stronger as it's pulled ono

### 11:22 - Sasaki: Functional membrane proteins * dynamical study of proteins * single molecular detection system * diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT) * proteins can be imaged with the use of “x-ray radiation pressure” * making artificial nano-crystal

  • commercially available crystals are often not enough perfectly crystallised
  • 3D and 1D nano-crystals (1D is enough for Sasaki's applications)
  • pH enables them to alter the state of the protein which can then be observed with DXT

### 11:48 - Vogt: endogenous metals in cells * metals are fundamental components of biological systems

  • linked to diseases, used in therapeutics and diagnostics

* is XRF the correct tool for the job?

  • it is at least better if you compare an analytical EM and hard x-ray microscope

### 12:17 - Lee: Hard x-ray phase contrast microscopy * samples are in \micro\meter scale * phase-contrast makes staining unnecessary > easy imaging of biological samples (be it either optical or x-ray microscopy) * sample preparation (wet/dry) still destroyed the sample through surface tension (> shear forces) * micro air bubbles can be shown * velocity profile with a resolution of several \micro\seconds

### 14:05 - Hertz: Lab x-ray micro imaging * compact water-window microscopy * relatively weak source > high efficiency zoneplates * functional imaging with size-selective coll. Au identification (with wavelet filtering) * no real progression on compact sources

  • used to be rotating anode > ~100 W/mm\squared
  • new: liquid jet with much higher output energy > higher speed of the anode (compared to the rotating anode) and in plus it's a regenerative target, since the anode can be damaged.
    • not only liquid metal anodes, but also used methanol (which performed much better than expected) > ~1MW/mm\squared
    • fluid dynamics start to play a role for the liquid anode
  • e-beam and reliability is improved > spin-off

* 3 \nano\meter lines can be distinguished * tumor detection should be feasible * lab x-ray microscopy approaches synchrotron quality for soft x-rays

### 14:39 - Benk: X-rays from discharge plasma * lab source for XRM > laser produced plasma and discharge plasma used as a source * driving force was lithography application * hollow cathode used to pinch the plasma to reach the critical conditions for emission

### 15:03 - Sandberg: Table-top diffractive imaging * diffractive lens-less imaging * highly coherent source > laser-like beam with gaussian profile * 72 nm resolution with 47 nm wavelength source > possible because of big NA * curvature correction of diffraction pattern increases resolution > mathematically match diffraction pattern on “curved” CCD * holography/phase retrieval hybrid method increases resolution

— ## 24. Juli 2008 ### 08:30 - Hwa Shik Youn: Bio-fibers & hard X-ray microscopy * microscope optics influences image contrast

### 09:03 - Nishino: Nanostructure analysis by coherent x-ray diffraction * diffraction microscopy for biological samples

  • no need of crystallization
  • no need of thin-sectioning
  • no need of staining

* study chromosome through diffraction imaging

  • unstained chromosomes can be imaged

* 2D to 3D > different incident angles of diffraction are measured

  • 3D fourier transformation
  • showed consistent data with 2D reconstruction
  • first observation of cellular organelle in 3D obtained with hard x-rays with a spatial resolution of 120 nm!
  • but: they are working close to the feature-destroying dose line!

* method can also be used in material science

### 09:29 - Larabell: Quantitative bio imaging * cryo-stage at end-station with cryo optical microscope and cryo x-ray microscope * histogram segmentation of organelles > colorcoding parts of histogram * variance weighted mean filtering * automatic segmentation > ask/look at publications * zone plates are used in the beamline (showed extremely nice movie of whole process! (transmission, FBP, segmentation, visualization, etc!))

### 10:32 - Hell: STED & 4Pi microscopy * breaking abbes barrier * increase the resolution of the imaging method simply through physical methods, no assumptions on material are made. * higher resolution than with confocal microscope * focal spot is so small, that focal-scanning inside the cell is possible > scanning mitochondria with resolution below 50 nm. * if switching states are recorded, we can go below the diffraction limit, effectively passing abbe's equation

### 11:27 - Feser: Commercial X-ray microscopy * commercial applications of different xradia products * automatic tomography > passive measurement system to record run-off (poster p2_030)

### 12:06 - Vila Comamala: X-ray diffractive optics * beam-shaping condenser lens, plate parameters permit the shaping of a square spot * spatial resolution limit in x-ray microscopy

  • resolution limit is from outermost zone plate zone

* multi keV range zone plates are possible and are in use @ PSI

### 14:00 - Heim: Full field microscopy * automated tomography @ ~400 proj/30min * volume zone plates should enable sub 10 nm resolution * cryo-tomography > aligned dateset * evtl. interessant für Dimitri, since the also use some kind of tilt-series, but kinda simpler and with bigger sample sizes

### 14:38 - Aoki: Zernike microscopy * basically just showed images that were obtained with phase contrast methods

### 15:08- Sakdinawat: Specialized diffractive optics * DIC magnetic phase contrast * spiral zone plates * cubic zone plates (square deformation of the zone pattern) * specialized zoneplates can significantly extend the depth of field

### 16:03 - Stoll: Magnetic vortex dynamics ### 16:33 - Fischer: Magn. dynamics with TXM ### 17:02 - Eimüller: Magnetic TXM

— ## 25. Juli 2008 ### 08:50 - Cloetens: Hard X-ray Nanotomography * scanning time is around 3h, completely limited by detector * combination of projection and scanning x-ray microscopy * detection on platinum nanoparticle with a diameter of 6 nm * working on thin slices, so no real tomography, but still chemical imaging on the organelle level * zoom tomography > sample is much greater than FOV * setup to scan laminar structures > sample rotates off the surface normal axis * thermal stability of the system is crucial

### 09:06 - Ludwig: Diffraction contrast tomography * analysis of structural material response on external stimuli * differential aperture > sub-micrometer spatial resolution * analysis

  • background removal
  • pair matching of projections of 180° pairs
  • indexing
  • back-projection is then possible and then the full sample can be reconstructed (sample has 0.6mm in diameter)

* forward simulation for proof of image acquisition * strain in sample can be measured and extracted

### 09:35 - Brennan: Nano-tomography of a comet * analysis of comet to determine the original composition of the universe * collect comet dust with aerogel * imaging with xradia xrm with 40nm resolution @ 5-14keV * imaging of the sample without destroying it, nanotomography * up to now not using diffraction but still possible to study the chemical composition of the sample

### 10:32 - Suzuki: Imaging, holography & tomography * holography with a combination of zoneplate objective and prism interferometer * phase-contrast ct by imaging holography

### 11:03 - Hitchcock: STXM tomography * combining imaging and spectroscopy * quantitative chemical maps from differential image from two different energies * radiation dose is something you have to think about > wet environment > sample moved > cryo-stage is needed

### 11:36 - Ade: STXM - from science to applications * applications towards the more efficient photovoltaic materials * fabrication of organic solar cells </markdown>